Our team of highly skilled grinding technicians combines traditional engineering skills with technology to deliver the highest standards of cylindrical and surface grinding to remove excess metal from a workpiece.
Our CMM machines measure ground components for cylindricality, squareness, roundness, flatness and distortion to within a few microns.
A rotating abrasive wheel removes material and creates a flat surface, used on different types of steel and other metals. We have 8 Surface Grinders, up to 1000 x 500 x 400mm capacity
This grinds cylindrical surfaces as well as the shoulders of the material with the workpiece mounted on centres and rotated. We have 9 cylindrical grinders used on shafts, punches and camshafts.
Surface Grinding Frequently Asked Questions
What is the difference between surface grinding and cylindrical grinding?
Surface grinding and cylindrical grinding are two common grinding methods used in manufacturing processes. Here are the main differences between the two:
1. Object shape: Surface grinding is used to grind flat surfaces, such as metal sheets, plates, or any other material with a flat geometry. Cylindrical grinding, on the other hand, is used to grind cylindrical or round objects, such as rods, shafts, or cylindrical workpieces.
2. Grinding wheel shape: In surface grinding, a horizontal spindle with a grinding wheel is used, which is generally a flat or cup-shaped wheel. In cylindrical grinding, a cylindrical grinding wheel is used, which has a cylindrical shape.
3. Grinding operation: Surface grinding involves the grinding wheel moving across the surface of the workpiece in a linear fashion, removing material from the surface to achieve the desired shape or finish. Cylindrical grinding, on the other hand, involves the rotation of the workpiece while the grinding wheel moves back and forth along the length of the workpiece to remove material and create a cylindrical shape.
4. Workpiece holding: In surface grinding, the workpiece is typically held in a magnetic chuck or a vice, ensuring it remains stationary during the grinding process. In cylindrical grinding, the workpiece is typically held between centers or in a chuck, allowing it to rotate during the grinding process.
5. Applications: Surface grinding is commonly used for finishing flat surfaces, removing stock material, or achieving high surface quality and accuracy. Cylindrical grinding is often used for machining cylindrical or round objects to achieve precise dimensions, roundness, or surface finishes.
What is the process of surface grinding?
Surface grinding is a machining process used to smooth the surface of a workpiece using a rotating grinding wheel. The process involves the workpiece being clamped onto a magnetic chuck or held in place by a vise while the grinding wheel, coated with abrasive particles, rotates at high speed. As the wheel moves across the workpiece, it removes material, creating a flat and smooth surface. The depth of material removal is controlled by adjusting the vertical feed of the wheel. This process is commonly used to achieve tight tolerances and improve the surface finish of various materials, such as metal or wood.
What are the different types of surface grinding?
The types of surface grinding are:
1. Flat surface grinding: This is the most common type of surface grinding, where a flat surface is created on the workpiece. It involves moving the grinding wheel back and forth over the workpiece to remove material and achieve a flat surface finish.
2. Cylindrical surface grinding: In this type of surface grinding, the workpiece is cylindrical in shape, and the grinding wheel is used to create a cylindrical surface. It is commonly used for grinding cylindrical parts such as shafts, sleeves, and bearings.
3. Vertical surface grinding: Also known as reciprocating surface grinding, this type involves the grinding wheel moving in a vertical direction against the workpiece. It is suitable for grinding large flat surfaces or workpieces with complex shapes.
4. Rotary surface grinding: In rotary surface grinding, the workpiece is mounted on a rotary table that rotates beneath the grinding wheel. This type of grinding is used to create flat surfaces, but it can also be used to grind curved or contoured surfaces by using a special grinding wheel shape.
These four types of surface grinding provide various options for achieving different surface finishes and shapes on workpieces, catering to the specific requirements of different industries and applications.
What are the methods of surface grinding?
Surface grinding is a machining process that involves the removal of material from a workpiece to create a smooth surface finish. There are several methods used in surface grinding, including:
1. Peripheral grinding: This is the most common method, where the grinding wheel is mounted on a horizontal spindle and the workpiece is moved across the wheel's surface.
2. Creep feed grinding: In this method, the workpiece is fed slowly past the grinding wheel with a large depth of cut. It is used for heavy stock removal and to achieve high precision on complex shapes.
3. Plunge grinding: Here, the grinding wheel is plunged into the workpiece to create a cylindrical shape. It is often used for the production of shafts and pins.
4. Disk grinding: This method uses a rotating abrasive disk to grind the workpiece. It is commonly used for flat surfaces and can be automated for high-volume production.
5. Centerless grinding: In this method, the workpiece is supported by a workrest blade and ground between a grinding wheel and a regulating wheel. It is used for high-precision grinding of cylindrical components without the need for centers.
What are the advantages of surface grinding?
Surface grinding is a widely used machining process that offers several advantages in manufacturing and metalworking industries. First and foremost, it provides precise and accurate finishes on flat surfaces, ensuring the desired level of smoothness and parallelism. This is crucial for parts that require tight tolerances, such as machine components or tooling.
Surface grinding also allows for the removal of excessive material, resulting in improved dimensional accuracy and better surface quality. This can be particularly beneficial for correcting surface imperfections, achieving flatness, and preparing workpieces for further processing or assembly.
Furthermore, surface grinding enhances the overall appearance of the finished product by providing a consistent and uniform surface finish. It can produce a range of finishes, from rough to fine, depending on the application and requirements.
A key advantage of surface grinding is that it is a versatile process that can accommodate various materials, including metals, plastics, ceramics, and composites. It is capable of grinding large or small workpieces, making it suitable for a wide range of industries, such as automotive, aerospace, and mold-making.
What are the basic types of surface grinders?
The three basic types of surface grinders are horizontal-spindle, vertical-spindle, and rotary table.
Horizontal-spindle surface grinders have a horizontally oriented grinding wheel that moves back and forth across the workpiece. These grinders are commonly used for flat surfaces and can also be used for creating grooves and slots.
Vertical-spindle surface grinders have a vertically oriented grinding wheel that moves up and down. These grinders are often used for precision grinding and can produce a smooth and accurate finish on flat surfaces.
Rotary table surface grinders have a circular table that rotates underneath the grinding wheel. The workpiece is mounted on the table and the grinding wheel moves across it. These grinders are suitable for grinding large, flat surfaces and can also be used for grinding curved surfaces by tilting the table.
Each type of surface grinder has its own advantages and applications, and the choice of grinder depends on the specific requirements of the job at hand.
What materials are used for surface grinding?
Surface grinding is a machining process that involves the removal of material from a workpiece using a rotating abrasive wheel. The materials used for surface grinding primarily include abrasive grains and a bonding material that holds the grains together.
The abrasive grains are the key components that actually perform the cutting action. Common abrasive grains used in surface grinding include aluminum oxide, silicon carbide, and diamond. Aluminum oxide is the most commonly used abrasive grain due to its versatility and cost-effectiveness. Silicon carbide is used for grinding harder materials, while diamond is the hardest and most expensive option used for high-precision grinding.
The bonding materials used in surface grinding wheels hold the abrasive grains in place and provide the required strength and stability. Common bonding materials include vitrified bonds, resin bonds, and metal bonds. Vitrified bonds are made from a mixture of clay and ceramic materials. Resin bonds are made from synthetic resins, and metal bonds are made from various metals such as bronze or steel.
What tools are required for surface grinding?
Surface grinding is a machining process used to produce a smooth finish on flat surfaces. Several tools are required for surface grinding, including:
1. Grinding machine: This is the primary tool used for surface grinding. It consists of a rotating abrasive wheel that removes material from the workpiece by grinding it against the surface.
2. Grinding wheel: The grinding wheel is an abrasive tool made of abrasive grains bonded together with a binder. It is attached to the grinding machine and is responsible for removing material from the workpiece.
3. Workholding devices: These tools are used to hold the workpiece securely in place during grinding. They can include magnetic chucks, vices, or fixtures.
4. Dressing tools: Grinding wheels can become dull or lose their shape over time. Dressing tools are used to reshape or condition the grinding wheel, ensuring optimal performance.
5. Coolant system: Surface grinding generates heat, which can damage both the workpiece and the grinding wheel. A coolant system is used to cool and lubricate the grinding process, preventing overheating and maintaining accuracy.
How accurate is a surface grinder?
A surface grinder is a precision machine tool used to provide precise and smooth finishes to flat surfaces. It is capable of removing very small amounts of material from the surface, typically within the range of a few microns. The accuracy of a surface grinder depends on various factors such as the quality and condition of the machine, the skill of the operator, and the type of grinding wheel used.
Generally, surface grinders can achieve high levels of accuracy, often within a few tenths of a thousandth of an inch. However, achieving such precise results requires careful setup, calibration, and monitoring throughout the grinding process. Factors such as wheel wear, machine vibrations, and thermal expansion can affect the accuracy of the grinding operation.
To maintain accuracy, regular maintenance and proper machine care are essential. This includes regular inspection and adjustment of the machine's components, ensuring proper alignment, and using high-quality grinding wheels. Additionally, the operator's skill and experience in setting up and operating the surface grinder play a crucial role in achieving accurate results.
Overall, a well-maintained surface grinder operated by a skilled operator can provide highly accurate surface finishes, making it a valuable tool in various industries where precision is crucial.
What types of grinding wheels are there?
There are three main types of grinding wheels commonly used in various industries:
1. Straight Grinding Wheels: These are the most common type of grinding wheels and are used for various general-purpose grinding operations. They have a flat shape and are primarily used for sharpening tools, shaping metal, and removing excess material from workpieces. Straight grinding wheels are available in various grit sizes and are usually made of aluminum oxide or silicon carbide.
2. Cylinder or Wheel Ring Grinding Wheels: These grinding wheels have a cylindrical shape and are used for precision grinding operations such as surface grinding, internal grinding, and tool sharpening. They are commonly used in machine shops and toolrooms to achieve high precision and smooth finishes. Cylinder or wheel ring grinding wheels are made of aluminum oxide, silicon carbide, or ceramic materials.
3. Tapered Grinding Wheels: These grinding wheels have a tapered shape, with a smaller diameter at the bottom and a larger diameter at the top. They are primarily used for grinding threads, gear teeth, and other similar components. Tapered grinding wheels are made of aluminum oxide or silicon carbide and are commonly used in machine shops and automotive industries for precision grinding applications.
What are the different grades of surface grinding?
Surface grinding is a machining process used to smooth the surface of a workpiece using an abrasive grinding wheel. The grade of a grinding wheel refers to its hardness and ability to remove material efficiently. There are several different grades of surface grinding:
1. Coarse Grade: This grade is used for rough grinding and removing large amounts of material quickly. It is typically used for initial stock removal on hard materials.
2. Medium Grade: The medium-grade grinding wheel is commonly used for general-purpose grinding tasks. It provides a balance between material removal rate and surface finish.
3. Fine Grade: This grade is used for achieving a smooth finish and precision grinding. It removes a minimal amount of material and is ideal for achieving tight tolerances.
4. Very Fine Grade: The very fine grade is used for high-precision grinding, achieving extremely smooth surface finishes. It is often used in applications where high accuracy and surface quality are required.
5. Super Fine Grade: This grade is used for super-finishing operations, providing an ultra-smooth surface finish. It is commonly used in applications where mirror-like finishes are desired.
The choice of grinding wheel grade depends on the material being ground, the desired surface finish, and the required precision.
What is the cylindrical grinding process?
The cylindrical grinding process is a type of grinding technique used to shape the outside of an object. It is commonly used in manufacturing and metalworking industries to produce precise, cylindrical shapes and improve the surface finish of workpieces.
During the cylindrical grinding process, a cylindrical object, such as a rod or shaft, is rotated and moved longitudinally against a grinding wheel. The grinding wheel, which is made of abrasive particles bonded together, removes material from the workpiece to achieve the desired shape and dimension.
The process involves several steps, including setting up the grinding machine, selecting the appropriate grinding wheel, and adjusting the machine parameters such as speed, feed rate, and depth of cut. The workpiece is then mounted between centers or held in a chuck, and the grinding wheel is brought into contact with the workpiece surface.
Cylindrical grinding can produce high precision and accuracy, making it suitable for applications that require tight tolerances and fine surface finishes. It is commonly used in the production of cylindrical components such as pistons, shafts, and bearings.
What is a cylindrical grinder?
A cylindrical grinder is a machine tool used to shape the outer surface of an object. It is primarily used for precision grinding, where high accuracy and smooth finishes are required. The grinder consists of a rotating wheel that moves along the length of the object being ground. The object is held in place between centers or on a chuck, and the grinding wheel removes material from the object's surface to achieve the desired shape and size.
Cylindrical grinders are commonly used in manufacturing and metalworking industries to produce cylindrical or tapered shapes, such as shafts, rods, and tubes. They can also be used to grind internal surfaces using attachments like internal grinding spindles. The grinding process involves various steps, including roughing, finishing, and spark-out to ensure precise dimensions and surface quality. Advanced cylindrical grinders may incorporate computer numerical control (CNC) technology for automated control and greater efficiency.
Overall, cylindrical grinders are versatile machines that provide precise and efficient grinding solutions for a wide range of applications and industries.
What are the three methods of cylindrical grinding?
The three methods of cylindrical grinding are plunge grinding, traverse grinding, and internal grinding.
Plunge grinding involves the grinding wheel being plunged into the workpiece, creating the desired shape or dimension. This method is commonly used for grinding cylindrical or tapered surfaces.
Traverse grinding is when the workpiece is fed across the grinding wheel in a continuous motion. This method is often used for grinding long, cylindrical workpieces, such as shafts or rods.
Internal grinding, as the name suggests, involves grinding the internal surfaces of a workpiece. This is achieved by using a small diameter grinding wheel that can reach inside the workpiece. Internal grinding is commonly used for creating precise holes or achieving a smooth surface finish inside cylindrical or tapered workpieces.
Each method of cylindrical grinding has its advantages and is chosen based on the specific requirements of the workpiece. These methods are widely used in various industries, including automotive, aerospace, and manufacturing, to produce high-quality, precise components.
Cylindrical grinding is a precise and versatile process used to shape and finish cylindrical objects, such as shafts, rods, and bushings. It offers several advantages that make it a preferred choice in various industries:
1. Precision: Cylindrical grinding provides high accuracy and tight tolerances, allowing for precise dimensions and surface finishes. It is capable of achieving sub-micron level tolerances, making it suitable for applications that require exceptional precision.
2. Versatility: This grinding method is applicable to a wide range of materials, including metals, ceramics, plastics, and composites. It can handle both hard and soft materials, making it highly versatile for various industries and applications.
3. Efficiency: Cylindrical grinding is a cost-effective process as it allows for high material removal rates and reduces the need for multiple grinding operations. This efficiency can result in reduced production time and cost.
4. Surface finish: The process produces smooth and consistent surface finishes, improving the functionality and aesthetics of the cylindrical objects. It can achieve specific surface roughness requirements, ensuring the desired quality and performance.
5. Flexibility: Cylindrical grinding machines are available in various configurations, including CNC-controlled systems, allowing for easy adaptation to different grinding tasks and part geometries.
How accurate is cylindrical grinding?
Cylindrical grinding is a precision machining process used to achieve very accurate and smooth finishes on cylindrical surfaces. The accuracy of cylindrical grinding depends on various factors, including the skill of the operator, the quality of the grinding machine, and the characteristics of the workpiece.
When performed by an experienced and skilled operator using a high-quality grinding machine, cylindrical grinding can achieve extremely accurate results. Grinding machines are designed to remove material from the workpiece in very small increments, typically measured in microns. This level of precision allows for tight tolerances to be achieved, ensuring the desired accuracy.
However, it is important to note that the accuracy of cylindrical grinding can be affected by various factors, such as machine vibrations, thermal expansion of the workpiece, and the stability of the grinding process. These factors need to be carefully controlled and accounted for to ensure the highest level of accuracy.
Overall, when performed under optimal conditions, cylindrical grinding can achieve high levels of accuracy, making it suitable for applications that require precise dimensions and surface finishes.
What is the cutting speed of cylindrical grinding?
The cutting speed of cylindrical grinding refers to the speed at which the grinding wheel is rotating during the grinding process. It is usually measured in meters per second (m/s) or surface feet per minute (sfpm). The cutting speed is a critical parameter in cylindrical grinding as it directly affects the material removal rate and the surface finish of the workpiece.
The cutting speed in cylindrical grinding depends on various factors including the wheel diameter, workpiece diameter, and the desired surface finish. In general, the cutting speed for cylindrical grinding ranges from 20 to 30 m/s (or 4,000 to 6,000 sfpm). However, the specific cutting speed may vary depending on the material being ground and the type of grinding wheel being used.
It is important to note that the cutting speed should be optimized to achieve the desired balance between material removal rate and surface finish. Higher cutting speeds can result in faster material removal but may also lead to increased heat generation and potential workpiece damage. On the other hand, lower cutting speeds may produce better surface finish but at the expense of lower material removal rate. Therefore, the cutting speed in cylindrical grinding should be carefully selected based on the specific requirements of the application.
How many types of cylindrical grinders are there?
There are generally two types of cylindrical grinders: the center-type cylindrical grinder and the centerless cylindrical grinder.
The center-type cylindrical grinder is the most common type and features a stationary workpiece that is mounted between centers and rotated by a machine spindle. This type of grinder allows for precise grinding of cylindrical objects with a high degree of accuracy. It is commonly used for grinding cylindrical surfaces, such as shafts, gears, and bearings.
On the other hand, the centerless cylindrical grinder does not require centers for holding the workpiece. Instead, it uses a regulating wheel to control the rotation of the workpiece and a grinding wheel to perform the grinding operation. This type of grinder is mainly used for grinding cylindrical objects with a consistent outer diameter, such as tubes and rods. It is often used in high-volume production settings due to its efficiency and speed.
Overall, these two types of cylindrical grinders cater to different grinding needs and offer distinct advantages depending on the application.
How do you balance a cylindrical grinding wheel?
Balancing a cylindrical grinding wheel is essential to ensure smooth and precise grinding operations. The process involves equalizing the weight distribution of the wheel to minimize vibrations and improve overall grinding performance.
To balance a cylindrical grinding wheel, the following steps can be followed:
1. Mount the wheel onto the grinding machine spindle.
2. Measure the vibration levels using a balancing device or a vibration sensor.
3. Determine the heavy spots on the wheel by marking them.
4. Remove the wheel from the machine and attach it to a balancing arbor or mandrel.
5. Use a balancing stand or balancing machine to identify the amount and location of imbalance.
6. Add balancing weights to the lighter areas of the wheel until it is properly balanced.
7. Reinstall the balanced wheel onto the grinding machine spindle and recheck the vibration levels.
Regularly balancing the grinding wheel is crucial for maintaining a stable and efficient grinding process, reducing the risk of damage to the machine, and achieving high-quality grinding results.
What are the disadvantages of cylindrical grinder?
One major disadvantage of a cylindrical grinder is its high cost. These machines are typically expensive to purchase and maintain, making them a significant investment for businesses. Additionally, the complexity of operating a cylindrical grinder can be a disadvantage. The process requires skilled operators who are familiar with the machine's controls and adjustments. This can lead to higher labor costs as well as potential errors or mistakes if the operator is not properly trained.
Another disadvantage is the limited versatility of a cylindrical grinder. These machines are specifically designed for cylindrical grinding and may not be suitable for other types of machining operations. This means that businesses may need to invest in additional equipment for different types of grinding or machining tasks. Finally, cylindrical grinders can be time-consuming to set up and adjust, which can result in less productivity and efficiency compared to other grinding methods.